Most scientists and scholars toil in obscurity, adding a few facts to the stock of human knowledge. Some individuals, however, make monumental contributions. Their work is cited by thousands; their discoveries launch (or demolish) entire research programs. What makes the most successful scientists so successful? Do they ask different, riskier questions? Do they simply generate more ideas–some of which turn out to be hits? In this project, we ask whether and how individuals differ in their research activity, addressing deep questions about the origins of great scientific achievement and the different styles of scientific genius.